Based on this research, defining access within the ideas of infrastructure and devices proved inadequate. We identified some core challenges to equitable access and participation online and have found that factors like time, mobility, and restrictions imposed (as in conditional permissions to go online) are existing barriers to accessing the internet.
Data in the study shows that women’s time online is sometimes or often regulated. The expectation is for them to spend time attending to chores and other domestic abilities, and that to be seen surfing the internet is thought of as a waste of resources.
Additionally, the internet is sometimes perceived as a threat to women’s roles and reputations. In our study, well-meaning family members worry about women’s exposure to the broader world as well as their online safety. In many cases, the women themselves worry about these things. It’s important to remember that in some Next Billion User (NBU) cultures, even sharing a photo of oneself can carry negative perceptions.